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Ethical Trekking

Ethical TrekkingEthical Trekking

As a result of Tourism Concern's ground-breaking campaign, Trekking Wrongs: Porters' Rights, over half of UK trekking tour operators have adopted our code of conduct for improved working conditions for mountain porters. The successes of this campaign have also informed other campaigns and industry codes of conduct. 

The issue

Mountain trekking – it’s exhilarating, it’s beautiful, it’s challenging. But how many of us could do it without the porters who carry our luggage and equipment? Porters are an essential part of treks. However, they often suffer appalling working conditions.

Porter using plastic bag as jacketFrostbite, altitude sickness and even death can be the cost for the porters carrying trekkers' equipment in the Himalayas, on the Inca Trail in Peru and at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Lack of shelter, inadequate food and clothing, and minimal pay are commonly faced problems.

For example, most Nepalese porters are poor farmers from lowland areas, unused to high altitudes and harsh mountain conditions. Nepalese porters suffer four times more accidents and illnesses than Western trekkers. Reports of porters being abandoned by tour groups when they fall ill are not unusual. Porters have even been abandoned in life-threatening blizzards while trekkers were rescued by helicopter.

These problems are repeated worldwide, leaving some porters to believe they are simply seen as beasts of burden. In the words of a Peruvian porters’ syndicate: "We suffer humiliation upon humiliation, and are treated as less than human." A tour operator in Pakistan reported that the way porters are treated amounts to modern slavery.


©Doug Scott

The Campaign

Tourism Concern’s campaign addresses the roots of this problem: the policies and practices of the tour operators who the porters ultimately work for. The majority of UK operators running trekking tours were not addressing porters’ rights and working conditions.

We do not want people to stop trekking – porters need the work. Instead, we collaborated with the trekking industry and UK tour operators to develop a code of practice highlighting minimum standards of working conditions that could be used as a basis for policies on porters’ rights.

We also campaigned publicly on this issue to raise awareness amongst trekkers and mobilise their support for improved industry practice.

The outcomes

The majority of UK operators now have policies on porters, paving the way for improved pay and working conditions for hundreds of porters. Look out for the Ethical Trekking logo or use one of our Ethical Tour Operators

Tourism Concern’s code of conduct has been used by the Kilimanjaro Porters Assistance Project (KPAP) to develop its own Guidelines for Proper Porter Treatment. KPAP, based in Tanzania, continues to monitor porters’ working conditions, encourage and track adherence to the Guidelines amongst trekking companies, and promote awareness amongst trekkers of companies aspiring to better practice.  

What can you do?

Ethical Trekking stamp - good practiceDespite this progress, many porters continue to have their human rights abused by trekking companies. 

It is essential that we all continue to ask questions of your tour operator or trekking company when going on a trek to ensure that porters’ working conditions do not get left out in the cold.

Additionally always make sure that any porters you use:

  1. Have clothing appropriate to season and altitude that provides protection from cold, rain and snow. This may mean: windproof jacket and trousers, fleece jacket, long johns, suitable footwear (boots in snow), socks, hat, gloves and sunglasses.
  2. Have a dedicated shelter, either a room in a lodge or a tent (the trekkers’ mess tent is no good as it is not available till late evening), a sleeping mat and a decent blanket or sleeping bag. They should be provided with food and warm drinks, or cooking equipment and fuel.
  3. Are provided with life insurance and the same standard of medical care as you would expect for yourself.
  4. Are not paid off because of illness/injury without the leader or the trekkers assessing their condition carefully. The person in charge of the porters (sirdar) must let their trek leader or the trekkers know if a sick porter is about to be paid off. Failure to do this has resulted in many deaths. Sick/injured porters should never be sent down alone, but with someone who speaks their language and understands their problem, along with a letter describing their complaint. Sufficient funds should be provided to cover cost of rescue and treatment.
  5. Are never be asked to carry a load that is too heavy for their physical abilities (maximum: 20 kg on Kilimanjaro, 25 kg in Peru and Pakistan, 30 kg in Nepal). Weight limits may need to be adjusted for altitude, trail and weather conditions; experience is needed to make this decision. 
  6. Are over 16. Child porters should never be employed.

For more information read our FAQ


In this section

All-inclusive holidays - Excluding local people

Water Equity in Tourism

Putting Tourism to Rights

Empowering Coastal Communities in Southern India


Slum Tourism

Ethical Trekking

- Ethical Trekking FAQ

- Guidelines: Porters' Rights


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